Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Individuals with narcissistic personality disorder often have a grandiose sense of self-importance. They routinely overestimate their abilities and inflate their accomplishments. They appear boastful and pretentious. People with narcissistic personality disorder assume that others attribute the same value to their efforts and may be surprised when the praise they expect and feel they deserve is not forthcoming. Often implicit in the inflated judgments of their own accomplishments is an underestimation (devaluation) of the contributions of others.
People with narcissistic personality disorder are often preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power, brilliance, beauty, or ideal love. They may ruminate about “long overdue” admiration and privilege and compare themselves favourably with famous or privileged people.
Individuals with Narcissistic Personality Disorder believe that they are superior, special, or unique and expect others to recognise them as such. They may feel that they can only be understood by, and should only associate with, other people who are special or of high status and may attribute “unique,” “perfect,” or “gifted” qualities to those with whom they associate. Individuals with narcissistic personality disorder believe that their needs are special and beyond the ken of ordinary people. They are likely to insist on having only the “top” person (doctor, lawyer, hairdresser, instructor) or being affiliated with the “best” institutions, but may devalue the credentials of those who disappoint them.
Symptoms of Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Individuals with narcissistic personality disorder generally require excessive admiration. Their self-esteem is almost invariably very fragile. They may be preoccupied with how well they are doing and how favourably they are regarded by others. This often takes the form of a need for constant attention and admiration. They may expect their arrival to be greeted with great fanfare and are astonished if others do not covet their possessions. They may constantly fish for compliments, often with great charm.
A sense of entitlement is evident in these individuals’ unreasonable expectation of especially favourable treatment. They expect to be catered to and are puzzled or furious when this does not happen. For example, they may assume that they do not have to wait in line and that their priorities are so important that others should defer to them, and then get irritated when others fail to assist “in their very important work.”
This sense of entitlement combined with a lack of sensitivity to the wants and needs of others may result in the conscious or unwitting exploitation of others. They expect to be given whatever they want or feel they need, no matter what it might mean to others. For example, these individuals may expect great dedication from others and may overwork them without regard for the impact on their lives. They tend to form friendships or romantic relationships only if the other person seems likely to advance their purposes or otherwise enhance their self-esteem. They often usurp special privileges and extra resources that they believe they deserve because they are so special.
Individuals with Narcissistic Personality Disorder generally have a lack of empathy and have difficulty recognising the desires, subjective experiences, and feelings of others. They may assume that others are totally concerned about their welfare, so they may tend to discuss their own concerns in inappropriate and lengthy detail, while failing to recognise that others also have feelings and needs. They are often contemptuous and impatient with others who talk about their own problems and concerns. When recognised, the needs, desires, or feelings of others are likely to be viewed disparagingly as signs of weakness or vulnerability. Those who relate to individuals with Narcissistic Personality Disorder typically find an emotional coldness and lack of reciprocal interest.
These individuals are often envious of others or believe that others are envious of them. They may begrudge others their successes or possessions, feeling that they better deserve those achievements, admiration, or privileges. They may harshly devalue the contributions of others, particularly when those individuals have received acknowledgment or praise for their accomplishments. Arrogant, haughty behaviours characterise these individuals.